Cannabis has been heralded as a miracle cure by several commentators over the past few years, but there seems to be a darker side that hasn’t been reported on by the mainstream media.
Although many scientific studies and
use cases confirm that cannabis can be used to treat a variety of diseases and
treat inflammation, pain and anxiety to name a few, there are still many risks
that come with using the plant.
Recent medical research demonstrates
that one in four teens are now using highly potent variations of cannabis that
could be potentially harmful for mental health. There is also an increased risk
of addiction when exposed to cannabis at a young age.
The study by Arizona State University
found that one in four Arizonian teens have used a marijuana concentrate – a
highly potent form of marijuana that possesses an extraordinarily high amount
of THC. It is often up to four times as strong as high grade cannabis bud.
The mental health risks of consuming
cannabis to excess or in extreme high doses is fairly widespread, with reports
claiming that it can increase the risk of psychosis, and other underlying
Another grave risk of consuming
cannabis in excess is the damage it does to male sperm cells, with another report
revealing it can alter specific gene cells within sperm thus potentially making
future children more likely to develop autism.
Gateway drug and addiction
Cannabis sceptics have often stated
that it is a gateway drug that will lead to the use of harder drugs such as cocaine
and heroin. While there is little scientific research to back this up, it could
be said that if a child was to associate with drug dealers and users at a young
age it may lead to normalising drug use, therefore paving the way towards becoming
a potential gateway.
Addiction, however, is a real
possibility associated with habitual use of the plant leading to developing a
dependence on the drug.
disorder (CUD), commonly known as cannabis
addiction is classified as the continued use of cannabis despite impairment in
psychological, physical, or social functioning, with studies showing that
around 9 percent of all cannabis users will develop a dependence on the drug.
Prolonged use of cannabis produces pharmacokinetic
changes, in how the drug is absorbed, metabolised and excreted, and
pharmacodynamic changes, how the drug interacts with cells in the body.
As a result of these changes, the user
will have to consume higher amounts of cannabis to achieve the desired ‘high’ effect,
thus acquiring a higher tolerance. As with all drugs, when the body develops a
tolerance to it and the user discontinues the intake of the drug, the body
experiences withdrawal symptoms.
Although compared with common
addictive drugs like heroin, the symptoms of cannabis withdrawal are far less
severe. However, users will still experience symptoms such as irritability,
depression, difficulty concentrating, restlessness and decreased appetite.
To be diagnosed with the disorder, an
individual must meet at least two of eleven symptoms where craving, withdrawal
symptoms, lack of control and negative effects on personal and professional
responsibilities are assessed.
Although hard drugs like heroin and
cocaine are far more of a risk, both in addictive factor and the harmful
effects of use, cannabis has a substantially higher number of users than both
those drugs therefore the number of individuals at risk of addiction inevitably
So, while cannabis and it’s many
compounds have the potential to improve many aspects of physical and mental
issues (also not forgetting that it can be enjoyable for most users)
understanding and preventing the dark side of consumption is vital for safe
High doses of THC have been linked to
a greater risk of psychosis and general cognitive impairment, along with risk
of addiction and dependence.
Along with developing mental health problems,
individuals already experiencing issues such as depression may be lulled into a
false sense of security in using cannabis as a form of escapism as THC gives
users a euphoric buzz and a short rush of dopamine.
Using cannabis as a crutch to aid
mental health issues in the short term can often feed back into a negative circle
of becoming dependant – spurring negative thought patterns and becoming less
motivated leading to loss of jobs or hobbies and consequently becoming more
As most symptoms of cannabis
intoxication eventually go away after a few hours of use, some people can
experience delusions that continue for a week after use, and in some cases
psychotic hallucinations and delusions that don’t go away – ending with a
diagnosis of schizophrenia.
to the UK’s National Health Service, using cannabis just five times as a teen
can increase the risk of psychosis, as the brain continues to develop until age
25 and when outside chemicals are introduced, it can negatively impact the
mental state of the brain.
Studies have found
that the onset of mental health issues and dependence can often stem back
through genes where people with low amounts of a particular receptor are more
For instance, Simone Banks spent a night
with friends when she was 15 smoking weed. However, on one occasion she
experienced disassociation and begun panicking and ended up being hospitalised
with a shock diagnoses of schizophrenia.
After learning of the existence of a
genetic predisposition for schizophrenia in her family, that night was the last
time she ever smoked weed and she confessed
‘if I had continued to smoke weed, there is a real likelihood that I would have
toppled off the deep end into chronic mental illness’.
CBD as the saviour
Many complaints on the types of
cannabis being smoked resulting in addiction, dependence or mental health
issues are often from strains with extremely high THC content.
When THC is heightened within a
cannabis strain, the CBD naturally occurring in the plant will end up being
entirely removed, this is a common issue happening currently,
where skunk – a breed of cannabis often produced with a high THC level – is one
of the most popular strains of weed being used.
CBD, the compound that doesn’t cause
any intoxication and actually has many beneficial elements to it, has been
reported to potentially block the many harmful effects of THC.
A recent study
demonstrates that CBD could reset the brain and counteract symptoms of
psychosis. The brains of the participants who received a dose of CBD
experienced fewer symptoms associated with psychosis.
New findings highlight the surprising contradictions of the plant where THC can lead to the onset of psychosis however CBD possesses anti-psychotic benefits and can potentially reverse the damage done by excess THC intake.